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XKD530

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  D-Type British Racing Green
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United KingdomPAS645

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Jaguar C-Type, D-Type & Lightweight E-Type photo

109 more photos below

Record Creation: Entered on 15 July 2021.

Database Updates: Show dataplate edits

 

Car History

Supplied to Suomen Maanviljelijain Kauppa Oy, Tampere, Finland; sold to Kurt Lincoln (Helsinki); 1956 over 2-litre race, Djurgard Park, 1st; raced successfully on road, ice and sand; raced by Timo Makinen; 1959/60 overhauled at works; 1961 Formula Libre race, Central Automobile Club of the USSR (believed to be the only time a D-type has ever raced in Russia), H. Hietarinta, 1st; 1966 sold to Nigel Moores; rebodied possibly using body made by Williams & Pritchard; 1988 sold to Yoshijuki Hayashi (Japan). Later reported to be two cars with XKD 530 identity.


One car built around original front subframe and long-nose bodywork, which Jaguar World states to be the car that carries the correct identity; owned by Andrew Baber (Forest of Daan, UK).


A second car was built up around the original damaged monocoque and original engine, transmission, and tail section. acquired from the Moores estate; 199? offered for sale in Brooks auction; 1993 passed, via Adrian Hamilton, to Arthur Urciuoli (USA).

Photos of XKD530

Click slide for larger image. This car has 110 photos. (Dates are when image was uploaded.)

Exterior Photos (35)

Uploaded July 2021:

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Uploaded February 2014:

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Uploaded July 2011:

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Uploaded March 2009:

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Interior Photos (1)

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Action Photos (5)

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Details Photos: Exterior (33)

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Detail Photos: Interior (19)

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Uploaded November 2009:

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Detail Photos: Engine (6)

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Detail Photos: Other (11)

Uploaded July 2021:

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Comments

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2008-10-25 04:15:43 | Roger writes:

Seen on Page 26 of Keith Martin's "Collecting Jaguar"

2008-10-30 05:02:02 | DB writes:

Reported in Jaguar Quarterly summer 1990: ' XKD 530, This D-Type was raced by Curt Lincoln in Finland and later by Timo Makinen (on ice!) before arriving in a rather sorry state with Nigel Moores in the 1960s. Thereafter its history becomes mixed, the front subframe being used to build up a long-nose style car with the monocoque centre section being passed on and eventually reunited with the original engine and gearbox of XKD530, one built around the monocoque and the other around the front sub frame.'

2009-03-03 09:03:50 | Pekka T. writes:

Finnish Jaguar Driver's Club has a series of articles about this car. Bought new by Curt Lincoln, 1st at Eläintarhanajot / Djurgårdsloppet 1956 dozens of prizes on tarmac, gravel and ice. Raced until 1965 when rules were changed again excluding big engines (3.8L fitted at the factory, 08932 miles recorded on Dec. 3rd 1959) Sold to England and car was fitted with a new body, engine, gearbox etc. The original body (monoque) and other parts were used to build another car. Finally an enthusiast bought both cars and put them back together, cheers for that!

2009-03-03 15:56:58 | Pekka T. writes:

No, sorry that one action photo must be from 1960 or 1961 as the car still bears (again) the Scuderia Askolin colours. When it arrived from England in February 1960 and had received the 3.8L engine as well as a full width windscreen, passenger door and the long fin in the head fairing it never had before it had (obviously) been painted BRG again at the factory. Reportedly Mr. Lincoln was extremely disappointed with the paint quality and furious about the fact that the engine showed problems at various rpm. The probelms were tweaked, the car was immediately painted white, and for the summer again white nose, dark blue.

2009-04-14 18:02:02 | pauls writes:

According to "Jaguar D Type & XKSS" by Graham Robson car was dispatched Feb. 13, 1956. Exported to Finland.

2009-11-02 10:00:56 | pauls writes:

Some somewhat current pictures of the car at:
www.conceptcarz.com/vehicle/chassisNum.aspx

2009-11-10 20:33:51 | pauls writes:

First owner said to be Suomen Maanviljelijain Kauppa Oy, SF

2009-11-13 15:19:33 | Pekka T. writes:

Sorry Paul, that was the distributor. First owner was Mr. Curt Lincoln, at the time still Swedish citizen (he later received the Finnish nationality) who won innumerous races with various cars. He had ordered the car though the Finnish Jaguar distributor as the most important race in Finland was won the previous year by Michael Head (GB) in another D-type (most likely XKD406). The first race for XKD530 was in May 1956, 1st OA "Eläintarhanajot" (finnish) or "Djurgårdloppet" (the same race name in swedish) SMK (Suomen Maanviljelijäin Kauppa Oy) stands for Finnish Farmer's Store Ltd. :)
This car also won the first (and only) Leningrad Grand Prix in 1961! This was a street track around the Kirov stadium, nowadays also that stadium has been demolished so only some photos and memories survive! (all of these races were on tarmac) BTW, the later "ice-racer" fame came from races run mostly from 1960 to ca. 1965 in the winter on ice of lakes or the Baltic sea up north! Some pictures from 1963 from Oulu show the long spikes on tyres. Traction was huge, according to spectator the D-type would do "wheelies" and eventually broke a drive shaft!

2009-11-13 16:30:47 | Pekka T. writes:

can bee seen on youtube, from Villa d'Este 2009: there are the predecessors first please count the mistakes by the presenter (Simon K.) starting from "Swallow Sidecar" for S.S. :)

www.youtube.com/watch

2010-03-09 14:00:52 | DB writes:

Advertised in June 1993 edition of Classic & Sportscar magazine: "realistically priced at £295,000" ... ....
Turn back the time machine !!, ....... oh well I guess could no more afford it then than I do now.

2011-01-20 06:48:31 | Pekka T. writes:

Sold by Christies in London, UK June 2002

www.christies.com/LotFinder/lot_details.aspx

Price Realized
* £358,650
* ($525,064)
* Price includes buyer's premium

Estimate

* £350,000 - £450,000 ($512,400 - $658,800)

Sale 6619
EXCEPTIONAL MOTOR CARS AND AUTOMOBILIA
11 June 2002
London,The Jack Barclay Showroom

2011-02-27 20:24:53 | pauls writes:

Listed as being owned by Gary Bartlett (USA) in the following article:
tinyurl.com/4osxt3s

or

www.hagerty.com/lifestyle/hobby_article.aspx

2011-11-10 19:50:28 | pauls writes:

More documentation of its history:
www.sportscarmarket.com/car-reviews/english/1349-1956-jaguar-d-type-roadster

2012-12-16 00:13:20 | pauls writes:

A 2003 article about the car's history:
www.autoweek.com/article/20030916/free/309160709

2013-06-19 16:09:31 | pauls writes:

Car to be again at auction:

www.rmauctions.com/lots/lot.cfm

Auction description:

1955 Jaguar D-Type

Chassis no. XKD 530

Monterey 16 - 17 August 2013

Lot 137

$4,000,000 - $5,000,000

Est. 300 bhp, 3,781 cc dual overhead-camshaft inline six-cylinder engine with three Weber 45DCO3 carburetors, four-speed manual gearbox, independent front suspension, live rear axle trailing links and transverse torsion bar, and four-wheel disc brakes. Wheelbase: 90.5 in.

Extensively documented; multiple in-period 1st place finishes

Comprehensive restoration in 2003 by noted D-Type expert

Subject of a five-part feature series in Jaguar World Monthly

Exhibited at Pebble Beach, Villa d'Este, and Amelia Island

Vintage racing participation, including the Mille Miglia and Goodwood Revival

FIVA Passport, FIA papers, and JDHT Certificate

Perhaps no Jaguar model boasts more esteem or respect than the legendary D-Type, which was engineered specifically to win Le Mans. Significantly departing from the prior C-Type's architecture, the D-Type was notable as one of the first monocoque sports racers, as it featured a fabulous aerodynamic body designed by Malcolm Sayer. The model was powered by a development of the C-Type's 3.4-liter inline six-cylinder engine, which was increased to 3.8 liters in later cars.

Debuting at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans, the D-Type finished a narrow 2nd to a 4.9-liter Ferrari V-12, and a year later, it won the race outright with a long-nosed factory body equipped with a revised motor. Jaguar retired from racing after the 1956 season, but the D-Type continued to flourish in private hands, winning Le Mans in 1956 and 1957 for the Ecurie Ecosse. Although not necessarily well-suited to every type of course, the D-Type proved to be extremely effective on properly surfaced endurance circuits, and it remains one of the most important Le Mans race cars ever built, holding a special place in Coventry lore.

Chassis number XKD 530 offers a tale that is surely as intricate and fascinating as any surviving D-Type. One of the 54 examples produced for privateer customers, this car was dispatched from the factory on February 13, 1956, finished in British Racing Green, as confirmed by its Jaguar Daimler Heritage Trust Certificate. Retailed through Finnish Jaguar dealer S.M.K., the car was delivered in April 1956 to Curt Lincoln, of Helsinki, a tennis player on Finland's Davis Cup team who was known to the racing world for his exploits in F3 midget cars and a Jaguar C-Type.

As factory documentation reportedly demonstrates, Mr. Lincoln sought to avoid excessive duty on the import; therefore, he instructed Coventry to make the car appear used, so that it would not be subject to new vehicle tariffs. To this end, the factory brushed the pedals to make them appear worn, replaced the steering wheel with a used one, and adjusted the odometer to misleadingly reflect accrued mileage, among other measures.

Mr. Lincoln primarily campaigned the D-Type at the Elaintarhanajo, Finland's best-known race of the period, which was run annually between 1932 and 1963 on a two-kilometer track at the heart of Helsinki. With the final drive ratio increased to 3.54:1, XKD 530 was driven by Mr. Lincoln under the banner of his Scuderia Askolin (named for partial owner and timber magnate Carl-Johan Askolin) to a 1st in class finish on May 10, 1956. Later that season, Lincoln again took 1st in class while racing side-by-side with his C-Type, which he had lent to Vaino Miettinen for the contest.

Other than the 1957 Elaintarhanajo, XKD 530 was used primarily for ice racing following the 1956 season, and team Askolin fitted the tires with 1¾-inch spikes for this purpose. Mr. Lincoln drove the car to 1st place finishes in this fashion on February 24, 1957, and, again, on March 10, after which the car was repainted in Scuderia Askolin's white and dark blue team livery.

From this point forward, Mr. Lincoln focused on driving his other cars, while XKD 530 was piloted for Askolin by various team drivers. This development was probably largely prompted by the FIA's cancellation of the Production Sports Car class in 1957. Correspondence suggests that around this time, Mr. Lincoln contacted the factory with interest in modifying the car to GT class specifications by converting it into an XK-SS road car. Eventually, the decision was made to conduct further race modifications domestically. Coachbuilders Wiima, of Helsinki, were retained to install a full-width windscreen, a new nearside door, and a custom tail fin. The year 1958 saw continued competitive outings, with numerous 1st and 2nd place finishes.

On May 26, 1959, Mr. Lincoln wrote to Jaguar's racing chief, F.R.W. "Lofty" England, that the rigors of ice racing had taken a toll on the car, and an overhaul was in order. The D-Type arrived at the Works competition department in Coventry in December 1959, and the engine block was replaced with a factory 3.8-liter example. The 40-millimeter Weber carburetors were replaced with 45-millimeter units, the gearbox and brakes were reconditioned, and the car was repainted in white. XKD 530 then returned to Scuderia Askolin with a written tag stating "+100 hp," and Mr. Lincoln resumed racing it, taking the checkered flag twice more in February of 1960.

In late 1960, Mr. Lincoln sold XKD 530 to magazine publisher Olli Lyytikainen, who continued to race the car, usually with future international rally driver Timo Makinen at the wheel. The following year, the car experienced one of its most publicized races, when Heimo Hietarinta finished 1st in the Formula Libre Class at the Leningrad Grand Prix on August 27, 1961. XKD530 is believed to be the only D-Type to have ever raced in the Soviet Union, and the occasion was reported in the September 1961 issue of Finnish magazine Tekniikan Maailma, forever documenting the car's momentous participation.

In November 1966, no longer competitive on Finland's ice courses, XKD 530 was sold to English collector Nigel Moores, a historic racing enthusiast who owned a number of D-Types during his life. When the car arrived to him, it showed the symptoms of wear expected from such hard use, and the body had been modified to an open two-seater cockpit with a truncated tail. As rebuilding the original body was deemed to be too prohibitively expensive for a car of such value at that time, it was decided that the later D-Type construction manner, which involved separately bolting a front and rear chassis sub-frame to the monocoque body, afforded the opportunity to remove the damaged body and salvage as many original chassis components as possible.

Mr. Moores' staff separated the chassis tub, mounted all-new bodywork in the factory long-nose style, and fitted the car with the wide-angle headed D-Type engine that had originally been used by the Cunningham team. The separated monocoque body, the original engine, and the gearbox were put aside and eventually sold, around 1984, to historic racer John Harper, who repaired the coachwork and mounted it on an all-new chassis that mostly consisted of various original Jaguar factory components.

As both resulting cars were stamped with the XKD 530 chassis number, a controversy gradually emerged as to the proper identity of each car, and which was, in fact, the authentic original car. "Ole Sommer," a D-Type owner and the proprietor of Sommer's Veteranbil Museum in Denmark, eloquently summarized the situation in a 1995 letter to Arthur Urciuoli (who acquired the original monocoque car in 1993) when he wrote, "It seems difficult to rectify the situation, unless some benevolent person should decide to purchase both cars, exchange the front subframes and the legal documents, resulting in only one single car claiming to be XKD 530."

This is essentially the path that the consignor followed after acquiring one car in 1998 and the other in June 2002. As detailed by an extensive five-part feature series written by Paul Skilleter and Jim Patten for Jaguar World Monthly magazine between December 2002 and September 2003, the consignor delivered both cars in late 2002 to Chris Keith-Lucas's well-regarded CKL Developments in East Sussex. Disassembling both cars, CKL carefully noted the individual part numbers and, comparing them to original factory parts numbering supplied by long-time D-Type expert, separated and color-coded the parts that were original to XKD 530 and those used as replacements in either of the two vehicles.

Of course, some doubt had emerged regarding the legitimacy of various claims of the two cars' individual histories and to which extent each possessed original components. These doubts were put to rest when CKL finally remounted the repaired original monocoque onto the original chassis frame, finding that the original factory bolt holes, which were fortuitously not uniformly drilled, matched precisely, for a form-fitting join.

Following the mid-2003 completion of CKL's amazing restoration, which reunited XKD 530's separated components for the first time in 35 years, the car was taken to Goodwood for some initial laps, and veteran Le Mans driver Mike Salman (who drove several D-Types in period) was asked to join the session and share his thoughts for the JWM feature. XKD 530 has run the Mille Miglia Storica four times since the restoration, and it has been invited to the 2009 Villa d'Este Concorso d'Eleganza, the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance, and the 2011 Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance. Additional vintage race participation included the 2011 Silverstone Classic's Stirling Moss Trophy, the 2011 Goodwood Revival Sussex Trophy, and the 2012 Goodwood Revival Sussex Trophy, where the car finished 8th overall and 1st among all D-Type entrants. In 2008, the Jaguar was returned to CKL for a sympathetic rebuild of the engine, clutch, differential, and brakes, among other components, further ensuring strong future performance.

Accompanied by a FIVA Passport and FIA papers, and featuring its original engine, transmission, chassis frame, monocoque body, and brake calipers, XKD 530 is believed to be one of the most original examples extant, and it has been carefully scrutinized by some of the niche's leading experts, resulting in a very complete car of utmost authenticity.

Chris Keith-Lucas, in particular, stated, "Of my 40 years in the business of restoring, repairing, and researching racing Jaguars, XKD 530 has been one of the most rewarding, and certainly most interesting, projects. During the restoration, we were able to confirm and document this car using numerous resources, including Jaguar's own build records, that almost every mechanical component of XKD530 is original to this D-Type as when it left the factory. This even includes the Works engine that was upgraded to a 3.8-litre block in 1959 by the factory competition department. I believe the bonnet may not be original to the car, but, otherwise, very few panels required replacement, although some had been modified during the years that XKD530 was used as an ice racer in Finland. With the many years of documented early race history, as well as extensive correspondence between the first owner and Jaguar, it is truly an important part of period D-Type competition history."

This is an exceptional example of the legendary Le Mans-winning D-Type, and it would be the crown jewel of most any collection.

Sold for $3,905,000

2015-02-17 11:15:11 | pauls writes:

Car to return to auction 3/15

www.rmauctions.com/lots/lot.cfm

Auction description:

Amelia Island

14 March 2015

Lot 135

1955 Jaguar D-Type

To be auctioned on Saturday, March 14, 2015

$3,750,000 - $4,250,000

Chassis no. XKD 530

Engine no. E 2044 9

Body no. H 2030

Otherwise essentially same as above.

Final Price $3,675,000

2021-07-15 14:48:25 | pauls writes:

Car to return to auction 8/21

rmsothebys.com/en/auctions/mo21/monterey/lots/r0131-1955-jaguar-d-type/1129894

Auction description:

Monterey

1955 Jaguar D-Type

The Paul Andrews Estate Collection

12 - 14 August 2021

Chassis No. XKD 530

Engine No. E 2044-9

Gearbox No. GBD 138

Body No. H 2030

Documents US Title

“The Ice Racer,” originally delivered to Finnish Jaguar connoisseur Curt Lincoln

Fabulous, successful period history including multiple 1st-Place finishes

Comprehensively restored in 2003 by D-Type expert CKL Developments

Original engine, transmission, chassis frame, monocoque body, and brake calipers

A regular vintage racing and rally entrant for almost two decades

Driven by the Andrews Family some 2,500 miles since acquisition

Accompanied by impressive documentation, FIVA Passport, FIA papers, and a JDHT Certificate

XKD 530: D-TYPE ON ICE

One of 54 privateer D-Types produced, chassis XKD 530 left the factory on 13 February 1956, finished in British Racing Green, as noted on its Jaguar Daimler Heritage Trust Certificate. Finnish Jaguar dealer S.M.K. delivered the car in April 1956 to Curt Lincoln, a tennis player on Finland’s Davis Cup team, known in the racing world for his exploits in F3 midget cars and, more pointedly, a Jaguar C-Type. He now upgraded to the latest and best machinery, although he was none too eager to have the Finnish authorities know that. To avoid new vehicle tariffs on the D-Type, he reportedly had Jaguar fit a noticeably used steering wheel, “worn” pedals, and a discreetly tweaked odometer.

The D-Type successfully arrived in Finland and was primarily campaigned in the country’s best-known race of the period, the Eläintarhanajo, held annually between 1932 and 1963 on a two-kilometer track in the heart of Helsinki. With a final drive ratio increased to 3.54:1, the car was driven by Mr. Lincoln under the banner of his Scuderia Askolin, named for the timber magnate who was part-team owner. It finished 1st in Class on 10 May 1956, followed by a second 1st in Class later in the season with its owner competing against his “old” C-Type, lent to Väinö Miettinen for the contest.

XKD 530 would once again run the Eläintarhanajo in 1957, but its primary exploits after 1956 were in that most uniquely northern motorsport: ice racing. Running tires embedded with 1¾-inch spikes, XKD 530 and Mr. Lincoln achieved 1st Place finishes on the ice on 24 February and 10 March 1957.

At that point, XKD 530 was refinished in Scuderia Askolin’s distinctive white and dark blue livery, and was handled largely by the team’s other drivers while Mr. Lincoln drove other cars. Correspondence suggests that Mr. Lincoln expressed interest in converting the car into an XK-SS for GT Class racing, but in the end undertook further competition modifications domestically, with Helsinki coachbuilders Wiima adding a full-length windscreen, a nearside door, and a custom tail fin. In this form the car continued to run in the 1958 season, recording numerous 1st and 2nd Place finishes to further embellish its record.

On 26 May 1959, Mr. Lincoln wrote to Jaguar racing chief, F.R.W. “Lofty” England, stating that the rigors of competition had made an overhaul necessary. That December, XKD 530 arrived at the Works competition department at Coventry, and there the engine block was replaced with a factory 3.8-litre example. The 40-millimeter Weber carburetors were replaced with 45-millimeter units, the gearbox and brakes were reconditioned, and the car was refinished in white. XKD 530 then returned to Scuderia Askolin with a written tag stating “+100 hp,” and Mr. Lincoln resumed racing it, taking the checkered flag twice more in February 1960.

In late 1960, after five seasons of highly successful competition, XKD 530 finally passed to its second owner, magazine publisher Olli Lyytikäinen, who continued to race the car, usually with future international rally driver Timo Mäkinen behind the wheel. The following year, the car experienced one of its most publicized races, when Heimo Hietarinta finished 1st in the Formula Libre class at the Leningrad Grand Prix on 27 August 1961. With this race, XKD 530 became what is believed to be the only D-Type to ever race in the Soviet Union—an occasion reported in the September 1961 issue of the Finish magazine, Tekniikan Maailma.

MODERN HISTORY

By November 1966, following several further short-term owners, XKD 530 was no longer competitive on Finland’s ice courses and was sold to the noted British collector, vintage racer, and prolific D-Type acquirer, Nigel Moores. When Moores acquired the car, it showed its hard use, with the body having been modified to an open two-seater cockpit with a truncated tail. Rebuilding the original body was prohibitively expensive given the value of what was, at the time, simply an outmoded race car. It was decided that the construction manner used on later D-Types, which involved separately bolting a front and rear chassis sub-frame to the body monocoque, afforded the opportunity to remove the damaged body while also preserving as many original chassis components as possible.

Mr. Moores’ staff accordingly separated the chassis tub, mounted all-new bodywork in the factory long-nose style, and fitted the car with the wide-angle head D-Type engine originally used by the Briggs Cunningham team. The separated monocoque body, original engine, and gearbox, were put aside and eventually sold in the mid-1980s to historic racer John Harper, who repaired the coachwork and mounted it to an all-new chassis consisting largely of various original Jaguar factory components. Unfortunately, in a scenario not uncommon to the period, both cars were stamped with the chassis number XKD 530, and so a controversy gradually emerged as to the two cars’ proper identities and as to whom owned the “real” XKD 530. Ole Sommer, a D-Type owner and museum proprietor in Denmark, summed up the situation to Arthur Urciuloi after Urciuloli bought the original monocoque car in 1993. “It seems difficult,” Sommer wrote, “to rectify the situation, unless some benevolent person should decide to purchase both cars and exchange the front sub-frames and the legal documents, resulting in only one single car claiming to be XKD 530.”

By the late 1990s, that path had become feasible, and Sommer’s wistful dream became reality when Gary Bartlett acquired both cars in 1998 and 2002 respectively. Both were delivered in late 2002 to D-Type historian and expert Chris Keith-Lucas’s highly regarded CKL Developments of East Sussex. Both cars were fully disassembled, with their individual part numbers noted, and after comparing them to original factory parts numbering, supplied by a longtime D-Type expert, the parts were separated and color-coded to identify which were original to XKD 530. Any doubt over which piece belonged to which car were put to rest when CKL remounted the repaired original monocoque onto the original chassis frame—and found that the original factory bolt holes, fortuitously not uniformly drilled, matched precisely for a form-fitting connection. As such, XKD 530 was finally completed in mid-2003, whole again once more.

The completed car was taken to Goodwood, where it was photographed on the circuit for the conclusion of a five-part article, documenting its resurrection, by Paul Skilleter and Jim Patten that ran in Jaguar World Monthly magazine between December 2002 and September 2003. At Goodwood it was joined by Mike Salman, the veteran Le Mans driver who had captained several D-Types in-period. It went on to run the Mille Miglia Storica no fewer than four times, and was invited to the 2009 Concorso d’Eleganza Villa d’Este, the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance, and the 2011 Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance. Vintage racing participation included the Stirling Moss Trophy at the 2011 Silverstone Classic and the Sussex Trophy at both the 2011 and 2012 Goodwood Revivals, finishing 8th Overall and 1st among all D-Type entrants in the latter. The car then passed in 2013 to British enthusiast Andrew Baber.

When it came time for Paul Andrews to acquire a D-Type, in 2015, it was natural that he looked to XKD 530. Accompanied by its FIVA Passport and FIA papers, having been scrutinized by some of the marque’s leading experts, and retaining once again its original engine, transmission, chassis frame, monocoque body, and brake calipers, it was all that one could wish for. It had soon been added to the collection, and, in typical fashion, did not sit still for long; it is estimated that the car has been driven some nearly 2,500 miles in its Andrews ownership, including on the Colorado Grand. One wonders how many modern D-Type owners have covered that many miles at the wheel of their machine! The fuel cell bladder has been changed, with the original accompanying the car along with a roll bar and other large spares; further, the brakes and clutch have been rebuilt, as well as new Dunlop tires fitted.

The story of XKD 530 pauses here before continuing, in the hands of a new owner, who, as Paul Andrews did, will appreciate all of its many robust attributes on road, track, or ice.

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